International Agreement On The Neutrality Of Laos

Kennedy faced the choice between two promising strategies: adopting a military solution that most likely called for unilateral intervention by U.S. forces; or to change a major policy change aimed at a ceasefire and the neutralization of Laos. He rejected the military option, although he encouraged an offensive by Phoumis to strengthen his negotiating position. She failed. Kennedy opened his press conference on March 23, 1961 with a lengthy discussion on Laos, calling for an end to hostilities and negotiations leading to a neutralized and independent Laos. The Pathet Lao accepted the ceasefire offer on 3 May. This delay gave the North Vietnamese Army (NVA) time to carry out an offensive in southern Laos and conquer the village of Chepone and the land needed to extend Ho Chi Minh Road to the western side of the Annamite Mountains, on the border between Laos and South Vietnam. Laos was an important theme at the Vienna Summit on 4 June, during which Kennedy and Soviet Prime Minister Nikita Khruschev agreed on a common goal of a ceasefire, neutrality and coalition government; As Khrushev summed it up, “the fundamental question is to reach an agreement between the three forces of Laos in order to ensure the formation of a truly neutral government.” Kennedy saw Laos as a test of the prospects for US-Soviet cooperation in areas where superpowers could achieve common goals and avoid confrontations. 3. From 26 April to 21 July 1954, an international conference was held in Geneva to end hostilities in Indochina. The conference produced the 1954 Geneva Conventions, which consist of a final declaration of the Conference, several unilateral declarations by conference participants and three ceasefire agreements on Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam.

“Other documents on the discussion of Indochina at the Geneva conference, Cmd 9239 (1954); Or Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 83. Cong, 2d Sess, “Report on Indochina” (Committee Print, 1954). During its participation in the Geneva Conference in 1954, the United States was not a party to the conventions. See 1 American Foreign Policy 1950-1955, 787-788. A joint declaration signed by everyone except Laos has committed. respect the neutrality, territorial integrity and independence of Laos. The 13 signatories made these commitments: there was no official recording of plenary debates or limited meetings of the Conference.